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Friday  29th June 2018
GEOGRAPHY   (OBJ & ESSAY ) – 10:00am – 12:00pm


Migration is define as the movement of people from one geographical area to another , involving permanent or temporary residence or settlement

(i)Rural Area migration:-This is the movement of people from one rural area to another rural area.

(ii)Urban-rural migration:-This is the movement of people from one urban centre to rural area

(iii)International migration:-This is the movement of people from one country to another

(iv)seasonal migration:-This is the movement of people from one place to another at a particular season eg summer holiday’s abroad

(i)Labour distribution:-Migration affect the world labour distribution such that the area where people leaves suffer for labour shortage while the destination areas experience increase in labour force

(ii)Economic effects:-The source region where people leave suffer for economic redundancies due to the movement of people from such area

(iii)population distribution:-migration is major factor that affect the world population distribution due to constant movement of people from one place to another

(iv)Development of ghettos:-The migration of people into another area to the destination region may lead to the development of ghetto due to lack of housing facilities


(i) Movement of goods and services: Transportation ensures the movement of goods and services from point of origin to their destination point in urban and industrial areas. Eg: air transport moves mails, perishable goods, high valued goods, military equipments, etc

(ii) Movement of people: Transportation equally ensures the movement of people from one part of a country to another, either for work or other purposes.

(iii) National and international trade: Transportation enhances trade between two countries and also between two diferent regions in a country. Eg: Through water transport, Nigeria is able to transport her petroleum to U.S.A and Britain; and get cars and machinery from these countires.

(iv) Development of tourism: people from different part of the world visits tourist centres through different means of transportation.

(v) Increased production: Transportation enables people increase their production either in agricultural, mineral or industrial goods.

(i) Presence of highlands: This limits the construction of roads, railways and airports in an area.

(ii) Distance: The longer the distance between two places, the more the transport, energy, time and cost of transportation.

(iii) Lack of capital: Owing to lack of capital, roads, railways, airports, etc are often difficult to construct and maintain.

(iv) Low patronage: Due to low patronage of these means of transportation, partly due to low income and low volume of trade, government is not encouraged to construct roads, railways, airports, etc.


3a) what is Localization of Industries
Localization of industries is meant the tendency on the part of industries to be concentrated in regions which are most suited for their development

3b) Advantages of Localization:

i) localization leads to promotion and growth of subsidiary.

ii) Fourthly, it results in the development of specialized research institutions.

iii) it leads to the spread of fast means of communication and transport.

iv) it encourages the development of financial facilities. When banks and other financing cooperation find profitable field for investment in a locality, they at once open their branches there.

Disadvantages of Localization:

(i) Localization is dangerous when the demand for the localized products declines due to the growth of foreign competition or due to the changes in the tastes of the people. In that case there will be mass unemployment in the particular localized industries.

(ii) Localization results in the economic independence of one locality on the other or of one country on the other; if the commodity demanded is one of the basic necessities of life, it can cause much to the depending nations.

(iii) People can learn only one type of work in a localized industry. If they wish to go to another place, they may face difficulty in getting employment.

(iv) During war, a localized industry can easily be made a target for bombardment and the whole industry can be ruined to ashes. So it is not wise to place all eggs in one basket. The industry should be decentralized. It should be spread out in various parts of the country so that it may not become an easy target for enemy’s air attack.



(I) Inadequate Infrastructure

For mining companies to run smoothly and efficiently, the basic amenities and infrastructures must be available in a reliable form.

Good roads are required for the safe and easy transportation of extracted minerals and also for the ease of movement of the heavy duty company vehicles and equipment.
Water is also required to run the mining process efficiently. Automated processes and clerical works require the presence of electricity. The epileptic condition of electricity in nigeria is one of those factors which is hindering the industrial sector, it is also a problem in the mining sector too

(ii) Insufficient Funding

Lack of capital is one of the factor which is hindering the small-scale and artisanal miners. These small scale and artisanal miners lack the required amount of capital to procure the necessary equipmnts required for a successful mining process.

The use of crude implements such as spade and hoe as what witnessed among the artisanal miners  at a Cassiterite mining site in Barkin Ladi, Plateau State, will not yield much products compared with the input effort.

(III) High Risk and health hazard

Mining is a process involving a greater amount of risk; over the years, there have been cases and records of mine explosions. The high riskiness of mining in Nigeria is due to the fact that the mineral Sector in Nigeria is mainly driven by the artisanal and small scale miners who embark on low technology and crude/traditional methods in their activities.

They are exposed to high risk from dangerous metals such as lead and radioactive waste. Cases of transcend of the limit considered healthy has been recorded in some mining locations in Nigeria.

(iv) Insufficient Geological Data

There is still a heavy reliance of the Nigerian mining sector on the geological data obtained about 50 years ago despite the fact that some geosciences data have been made available.

The department in the mining sector responsible for the research and collation of geological data should be worked on.

(V.) Lack of Well-Equipped Laboratory

Frequent research on mineral deposits found in the country will help uncover the various ways through which these minerals can be put to efficient use after extraction. It can also suggest the possible ways through which these minerals can be modified or optimum storage and handling conditions.

(a)A good and promising geological data can go a long way to aid the approval of a business plan or release of funds by the government. Also, mining licenses issued by the Cadastre Office should be able to serve as collateral for loans, if supported by reliable information on the quality and grade of deposits.

(b)In order for these researches to be successfully carried out, the laboratories must be fully equipped and staffed. The basics amenities such as electricity and water supply must be reliable too. Nigeria lacks these well-equipped laboratories hence the struggles and low development rate of the mining sector

(c)The government needs to bring these miners into a legalized framework via making them real start-up miners and ensuring they pay government the right set of taxes and royalties.



(i) ECOWAS has provided a forum for the president of Nigeria to meet with the Heads of other West African States to discuss common problems and find possible solutions.

(ii) free movement of Nigerians to member countries without visas is guaranteed.

(iii) ECOWAS regional gatherings provided opportunities for Nigerians to meet with their counterparts from other member countries to share and promote ideas through sports.

(iv) Nigeria has participated in trade fairs through which her products were advertised.

(v) Nigeria has benefited from the free movement of goods and services; there is always a ready market for the sale of her produce.

(i)Language barrier
There are three languages that are used for communication within the ECOWAS , that is English, French and Portuguese. For easy communication among members there is the the need for individuals in the region to be able to speak these languages but this is proving to be difficult. This has necessitated the use of interpreters to make people understand each other at summit meetings.

(ii)Widespread Poverty
Many of the member states of ECOWAS are among the poorest of the poor nations in the world. Many of their citizens earn less that a dollar a day. This, in a certain sense is preventing real economic integration of the sub-region while many continue to live in squalor and deprivation.

(iii)Human Rights Abuses
Another problem of the ECOWAS group is the penchant of the member states to abuse the human rights of their citizens. The human rights records of some member states is nothing to write home about. Champions of human rights abuse have cited member states on many occasions over their human rights abuse.Togo was ever cited, Nigeria under Sanni Abacha has ever been cited. This is a problem for ECOWAS.

(iv)Financial problems
The aims and objectives of the ECOWAS can only be achieved when the financial base of the community is solid. However, some member states are not able to honour their financial obligations to the community.This is one problem that has bedeviled the community over the years, especially when it comes to the running of the affairs of the community

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